Thermal environment of the nest during development of tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) - Directory of wholesale, manufacturers, distributors, importer and exporter in Indonesia
- Author: Adam Floyd May 12, 2017,
May 12, 2017, 7:34
Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) begin breeding in April in Minnesota and the first young hatch approximately 1 June, when air temperatures at night range from 5-15 deg C. On cool days and during inclement weather, average daytime air temperatures at that latitude may only be 15-20 deg C, posing significant risk of cooling to newly hatched chicks without an attendant brooding parent. Perhaps because of the risk of hypothermia associated with early breeding at northern latitudes, Tree Swallows line their cavity nests of dry grass with feathers (Robertson et al., 1992). The importance of that feather insulation was documented by Lombardo et al. (1995), who found that Tree Swallow chicks from nests with artificially reduced feather insulation had lower growth rates and were smaller and less mature at day 12 (approximately two-thirds of the nestling period).
Methods-Tree Swallows were studied at the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant, New Brighton, Minnesota, from 1995 through 1997. Over 400 bluebird (Sialia sialis) nest boxes had been installed on the 2,400 acre site during the previous six years . Pairs of nests in close proximity and with similar hatch dates were selected for continuous temperature monitoring. Clutch size was reduced to three young in one nest, and was held at six in the other. Data loggers (Model ML-1, Mini-Mitter Co., Bend, Oregon) were installed in six pairs of nests to record air and nest temperatures throughout chick development.The data loggers were calibrated in a water bath against a reference thermometer over a temperature range of 20-40 deg C, were programmed to log temperatures 10 times an hour throughout the day, and synchronized with real time. Response time of the external nest probe was
To evaluate the effect of air temperatures on nest temperature throughout development, mean nest and air temperatures were computed for two periods only for each nest: 0000-0400 CST (a stable period of nocturnal air temperature) and 0600-1200 (representing daytime air temperatures that had the greatest daily variation). Daytime and evening data (12000000) were not used in this analysis because loggers were often in direct sunlight during part of that time and did not provide accurate air temperature measurement. ANOVA, in which the effect of clutch size, time of day, and age at nest temperature (T ^ sub n ^), or coefficient of variation of nest temperature (CVT ^ sub n ^) were analyzed. Because of a highly significant correlation of air temperature and nest temperature (P
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